As some of you may and some of you may not know, I have been following the Civil War in Somalia very closely for the last 4 years and have learnt quite a lot about it. Now I have made very detailed posts about this before but since I don't have time to go over it all again, here is an old post, which includes some maps I made and basic explenations breaking it down for you.
2006: As you see Somalia is first very divided, as the ICU defeats the ARPCT (an alliance of CIA-backed warlords) it conquers most autonomous republics like Hiiraan, Jubaland, South-West Somalia and also takes over Pirate strongholds. The TFG is besieged in the district of Baydoa (the one which is blue fromof the beginning) until Ethiopians occupy the regeon in between their border with Somalia and the city. In December 2006 Ethiopia launches a US-backed invasion and defeats the ICU. The invasions starts on December 20 and ends on January 12 as they take the Muslims' last stronghold: Ras Kamboni (which is a city located on the most South-West point of the country).
2007: The core of the ICU's military wing was a group led by notorious warlord Sheikh Adan "Eyrow", he continued operating it as an independent insurgent group called Harakat al-Shabaab Mujahedeen (HSM), more commonly known as al-Shabaab. Some elements of the ICU regrouped with leaders + non-Muslim opposition to the TFG military regime and created the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) which is led by Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys (Somalia's main Muslim leader) and his protoge Sheikh Sharif Ahmed, a schoolteacher who Aweys made chairman of the ICU. Other notorious warlords such as Hassan "al-Turki" create their own insurgent groups such as the Ras Kamboni Brigades.
2008:The insurgents start seizing territory, the government has in the meanwhile lost most of it's territory to different clans and tribes operating completely independently from the government. by August they admit that majority of the country is under Muslim control again. By January 2009 Ethiopians announce their withdraw and al-Shabaab seized Baydoa, the only city the government controlled during the last 18 years. Ethiopians however, while withdrawing, seize control of the border regeon and slowly pull out. Meanwhile HSM is routed from the Central regeon by a government alligned Sufi group called Ahlu al-Sunnah Waljama'a (ASWJ).
2009: The ARS splits in two as Sheikh Sharif leads his own branch which reconciles with the government. The 225 member parliament is expanded with 200 ARS members and Sheikh Sharif is elected president by the parliament. Sheikh Aweys's branch of ARS merges with Ras Kamboni Brigades, Jabathul Islamiyah and Mu'askar Anole into Hizbul Islam (HI) and together with al-Shabaab they vow to continue fighting Sharif Ahmed's regime. At the beginning of the year pro-Ethiopian warlords controlling parts of the South West vow to re-take Baydoa but are crushed by a HSM invasion. In may an offensive get's insurgents control over most of the capital read on wiki for further information about that battle. An offensive in the central regeons leads them to seize control over all of the ARS controlled area leaving the government only in control of parts of Mogadishu.
Then in september war breaks out between HSM and HI, however HSM quickly destroys HI in the Southern and central regeons leaving them only in control of Beledweyn and Ras Kamboni. During this period however ASWJ captures parts of the Central regeon and many ex-TFG and ex-ARS warlords join ASWJ which is seen since end 2009 as the alternative tot he government. In the last picture all of the blue area shown (except in the capital) is ASWJ.
2010: ASWJ launches an offensive on Beledweyne resulting in HI allowing HSM to flood the city with their militants to defend it. ASWJ also launches an offensive on Elbur (the only town in Galgugud (ASWJ's home province) which HSM holds) but though they manage some initial succes both offensives fail. In February 2010 Hassan Turki leaves HI and joins HSM leaving HI only with some minor presence in the capital Mogadishu and Beldweyne. Later in the year HSM crackdown forces HI to surrender and merge with HSM, giving them a monopoly over the insurgency.